Education in the 21st Century Infographic

Education in the 21st Century Infographic.


I’ll be back…. A reflection of a learning experience that will not end

Clip from 443Katros Channel- You Tube

Before delving into the blogging and pinterest aspects of Youth, Popular Culture and Texts I would often despair of the loss of student’s involvement and engagement with culture, literature and the world around them. My preconceived views on gaming and YouTube participation by my students and even my own children had coloured my perceptions and thus hindered my appreciation that the participants were indeed involved and learning. Throughout the course of my own engagement and involvement with the blogging and pinterest I have been forced to re-examine my own cultural assumptions and have come to realise that popular culture in all its formats is more than an evasive form of entertainment, and instead offers the youth of today a means of engaging productively with their education, culture and literature.

As a whole popular culture is a diverse, artistic and communicative construct that provides not only entertainment but also knowledge to the user (Mallan & Pearce, 2003). The daily life of my child/student is in fact permeated and some ways defined by the educational experiences offered by popular culture. It is natural for me to remain concerned with the nature of popular culture and its constructs as the rapidly evolving medium opens new and previously unchartered roadways (Lumby & Fine, 2006) that require careful navigation and clear directions. Applications and new formats such as Snap Chat: with its open and gone construct, seem to offer little lasting value and open youth to cyber bullying practises and experiences. This aspect when viewed in conjunction with concerns regarding the manner in which consumer desires and decisions limit the development of many aspects of modern culture and in fact define its very construct (Jenkins, 2006) means it would be very easy for teachers, parents and adults to launch into a moral panics regarding popular culture and its effect on today’s youth (Lumby & Fine, 2006). Yet popular culture as a whole is imbued with concepts of participation, creation, knowledge gathering and self-development the youth of today have a greater understanding of the world around them than I previously perceived (Buckingham, 2007). Effectively the participation of my students /children with and in popular culture has ensured their experiences, although vastly different to my own, are just as valid and perhaps even more authentic. The reality is that popular culture is a complex construct that energises the mind and demands new forms of involvement from the user to ensure not only the delivery of an entertainment but also a new and emerging educational journey (Johnson, 2005). The elements found in popular culture allows the user to give expression and gain meaning in a personalised manner that promoted concepts of creation, critical thinking and the promotion of sharing thoughts and beliefs (Mallan & Pearce, 2003).

In my journey I discovered this for myself. My blog has gained followers and a number of my pinterest’s have been shared worldwide. My experiences in these new (for me) formats have allowed for the personal discovery of the true power of popular culture and technology. I perceive that my thoughts and beliefs regarding education, differentiation and inclusion have a new audience that is only limited by a slow internet connection. Through the use of popular culture constructs and shared via the social media platforms of blogging, pintrest, Tumbir, Twitter, Facebook… the list goes on… I can reach out to like minded people and together we can change the world. The delight felt when you receive notification that your blog has been re-blogged or your pin has been re-pinned gives pleasure, power and empowerment. This creation of self highlights the thrill that popular culture offers the youth of today as it facilitates and encourages the attainment of concepts and perceptions determined by ‘self’. The reality is that now I truly understand what Henry Jenkins advocates and now see that popular culture is a tool and a resource that allowed me to think about, think with and ultimately engage with the constantly evolving world around me.

Essentially popular culture allowed me to take ownership of my own learning experience and made me the controller, constructor, seeker, disseminator and publisher of information (Dowdall, 2009). Once given control of the social and personal transformation of information I effectively became the generator of my own knowledge and understanding. This powerful learning experience was only limited by my own ability to manoeuvre and engage critically in the unstructured learning experience it offered. This aspect highlights to me the importance ‘education’ still plays in the modern world constructs of popular culture. To engage effectively in this new medium the user requires a new skill to engage with the rapidly evolving content contained within popular culture (Lev & et al, 2011) . Youth engage with popular culture in a variety of ways and for a variety of reasons, yet it is an unstructured learning experience (Buckingham, 2007) and thus the adult, be it the teacher or the parent, must support the development of skills that allow the youth to engage effectively. Popular culture in its essence is not a new construct for the classics of today where once yesterday’s popular culture, but the manner in which the youth engage and interact with it is a new construct and through examination it becomes evident that the participatory nature of popular culture requires the development of new tools, attitudes and applications to ensure constructive interaction with it. Jenkins (2010) states that 65% of American youth are involved productively with producing snippets of popular culture that actively generates knowledge and this statistic highlights the importance of preparing our students/children with the skills required to be partaking in popular cultural undertakings and activities. Today’s popular culture is effectively a transformation culture of youth learning for and about themselves separate from the adults (Black, 2004) and thus this empowering culture must be used to bridge the gap to allow the adult/educator to teach with  and not separate from, the student/youth. This creation of a cultural hybrid will thus suit the differing needs, comprehensions, wants, understanding and tasks of all participants.                  

P.S In the immortal words of Arnie in The Terminator…. I’ll be back.


Black, S. ( 2004). Teachers can engage disengaged students. The Educational Digest 67 7, 39-44.

Buckingham, D. (2007). Digital childhoods? In D. Buckingham, Beyond Technology (pp. 75-98). Cambridge UK: Polity Press.

Dowdall, C. (2009). Ch 3 Masters and Critics- children as providers of online digital texts. In V. Carrington, & M. Robinson, Digital Literacies: social learning and classroom practises (pp. 43-61). Los Angles: SAGE.

Jenkins, H. (2006, June 19). Welcome to the Convergence Culture. Retrieved from The Offical Weblog of Henery Jenkins:

Jenkins, H. (2010, June 3). TED lecture on Particapatory Culture. (H. Jenkins, Performer)

Johnson, S. (2005). Introduction : The Sleeper Curve . In S. Johnson, Everything Bad is Good for you (pp. 1-14). New York: Riverhead Books.

Lev, D. J., & et al. (2011). The New Literacies of online reading comprehension: expanding the literacy and learning curriculum. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy 55 (1), 5-14.

Games: Beyond fun

The PewPew Diaries.

Most games are designed to be fun – that’s their selling point. They tell you this piece of software is the missing puzzle piece to your heart, the antidote to the restless and empty soul. These games are planned to be, intended to be fun since the day it was birthed as an idea. And its intention remained as a core objective during all stages of development, to bring “fun” to its player. Games, moments before its launch, tend to be marketed along these lines as well. Some even go as far as to estimate the hours of “fun” the game can bring.

We stop by our local Gamestop and pick up our little packages of fun and indulge ourselves in hours upon hours of promised mental stimulation, occasionally cheered on by the program itself. Many games centered around PvP content tend to sport more conspicuous tactics. MOBAs like DotA…

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Making literature memorable through popular culture…. Is Twilight/ 50 Shades of Grey the new Romeo and Juliet?


Image by L. Donnelly

Entering my local Target store last night I was confronted with the rather large poster beseeching me to buy “50 Shades of Grey” lingerie and thus was essentially left with definite evidence that popular culture  has facilitated literature’s transcendence of traditional  boundaries. Now while I personally don’t regard “50 Shades of Grey” and its predecessor “Twilight” as great literary works it is irrefutable that they have introduced a generation of readers to concepts contained in famous works of literature such as “Wuthering Heights”, “Jane Eyre” and “Romeo and Juliet”. Seeing this poster it all its grey glory I perceived that everything literary is becoming the rage and is thus enabling the literature to permeate every aspect of daily life (Collins, 2010).

Essentially the once solitary undertaking of reading is becoming a social encounter thanks to aspects of popular culture and consumerism.  Digital technology and the converging of the literary, visual and consumer cultures are ultimately changing the concept of the literary experience (Collins, 2010). Film adaptations, advertising, gaming, graphic novels, TV series and digital print, where I am able to highlight parts of a book and share on social media sites,  have converted literary culture into a natural experience and influential authors like Tolkien, Shakespeare, Dante, and Austin have become the foundation for these emerging platforms and new perceptions of culture. In her article Thurnau highlights the concept that while many academics and die hard purists no doubt view popular culture as superficial and beneath their notice the reality is that the great works are embedded into our popular culture perceptions and are vastly influential in everyday life.  Harnessing this power is an indisputable method that will enable the educator to enhance student learning and facilitate the growth and development of the student’s critical thinking skills beyond the world of academia.  While many believe the the very nature of popular culture as a fleeting and continually evolving construct limits its use in the classroom its very essence is determined by multiple examples of classical texts and concepts that have stood the test of time. In essence popular culture is a symbiotic construct that thrives on other aspects of culture. Ideas are restyled, restructured and reinvented constantly into new mediums and thus ultimately create a literary experience for all participants that facilitates their learning.

Today’s world is saturated with popular culture. It is readily assessable to all and thus it is increasingly important to discuss and explore its constructs within interactions with classic literature. Essentially the twelve common themes of literature are elements contained within the greats and these universal conditions of man are found in many aspects of popular culture. This aspect makes popular culture a boundless scaffold to facilitate the building of  higher critical thinking levels in students. Ultimately, like the literary greats, popular culture allows for the expression and exploration of real human emotions and makes valid comments on the human experience. Essentially popular culture has become the new lens to allow us to view classic literature through. So next time you sit down to watch “The Walking Dead” perceive and acknowledge the common themes; such as death is a part of life or that love and friendship are dependent upon concepts of sacrifice that are found in the classics are just as evident in this zombie apocalypse.  

Works Cited

Collins, J. (2010). Bring on the Books for Everybody: How Literary Culture became Popular Culture . Durham, USA: Duke University Press.

Donnelly, L. (2013, October 15). Target: 50 Shades of Grey image. Target Advertising and Marketing. Ipswich, Queensland, Australia.

Thurnau, J. E. (2005, December 1). Yahoo Voices. Retrieved from Popular Culture Vs Classical Literature:

And then there was Phil de Franco, Assassin’s Creed, The Simpsons and Freire

Clip from the Phil DeFranco show – You Tube

Pop Culture is a reflection of social change, not a cause of social change (Podhoretz, 2013).”

Reading this comment I started to think about the direction education is taking in regard to popular culture and its inclusion into the curriculum.  The comment highlights that the concept of using popular culture into the lesson/curriculum needs to be more than choosing certain texts or supporting student understanding of content through the introduction of popular culture references. Rather it is recognition that the very nature of society has shaped and moulded the popular culture that influences our youth. The very complexity of popular culture in its entirety is more than books, movies and TV.  Marzano (2010)states that no matter their grade games are a regular part of the student’s life everywhere except the classroom. The reality is the technology and resulting popular cultural changes have opened the floodgates not only to a new resource but to a new and evolving pedagogical framework. Dewey (1916) and Kilpatrick (1951)made educators realise that the student needs to be the focal point of the teaching and thus the teacher now recognise that popular culture – in all its forms: be it gaming, you tube, social media, TV, Movies or texts etc – is exercising the minds of today’s youth. Despite concepts that it is a mindless addictive escapism that promote negative behaviours the constructs found in popular culture are instead enhancing the participants brain functions (Johnson, 2005).

Yet the reality is that if a child spends hours with their head buried in a book we as adults don’t blink and rather praise the child and admire their ‘intelligence’, yet if a child spends more than an hour on gaming, TV etc: typically known as screen time- the adults perceives that this child is not in a valid learning experience. Is this a true conjecture of what it really means when students engage in screen time? Through an interview with a young man, shown below, it became obvious that screen time has more impact on student education that traditionally recognised.

(The youth questioned during this interview was a 13 yr. old male who is on the Autistic Spectrum. The answers are in his own words. The young man was questioned in regard to his engagement with well-known aspects of popular culture and questioned as how they appealed to him and what they taught him. While it is recognised that the personal learning styles and interests of the young man impact on the answers and that they thus will not hold true for ALL students it is interesting to note that the traditional formats such as books failed to engage this individual.)


Do you read books at school?

What type of books?

Do you like reading these books? Why/Why not?

If I have to, when the teacher makes me

What the teacher gives me

Not really because they don’t interest me much- reading hurts my head when there are too many words and I don’t get to decide what happens in the book – I feel I have no control- I just turn the page- there is no real involvement by me I just turn pages really.

Do you read books at home? Why/ Why not?



What makes a book interesting to you?


What do you think books teach you?

If you don’t read what do you do instead? Why?

Sometimes- I like Diary of a Whimpy Kid but only read it for little amounts of time. I feel books force feed the ideas on to me.

It has to interesting and meaningful to me- not boring. I find it hard to follow what the author means sometimes or even some times the author changes what happened.

They teach imagination and how to read

I like to play games on the computer and xbox- Games have the same qualities as a book and a movie but it lets you take the mindset of the hero- when I play games I am the hero and I direct the story. I make the decisions and tell the story- not the author



Do you watch TV? Why/ Why not?

What shows do you watch?

Why do you like these shows?

Do think these shows teach you things?

Yes, because it lets me relax

Adventure Time, Futurama, Simpsons, Teen Wolf, Grimm, and Regular Show. I have started watching the new show called Sleepy Hollow. I like the shows on the comedy channel like Good News Week and I also watch a lot of documentaries.

I like the cartoons, good news week and TV series because they help me escape from the curses of real life. The things we hear about now days makes me feel really bad about the future. These shows help me not to feel that everything is negative. The documentaries teach me about the things I am interested in and want to learn about. But they are a bit like books because I have to follow the story being told and not explore what I want

Of course the documentaries do. But the other shows do too. I can also learn things from the cartoons; like in the Simpsons they sometimes do things about history or famous people. The shows have messages in them like helping people, following rules of being a good person not just the rules to be good. All the shows teach me how the world works, what’s happening in it and how I can make it better in some way.


Do you watch movies? If so what types?




What are your favourite movies and why?


Do you think these movies teach you things?






What do you prefer to watch – movies, or TV? Why?

I like movies that have action and adventure in them. I don’t really like sci fi and I hate scary movies. I really like comedies like the Hangover (don’t tell mum that I watch it but).

I like the movies like Road to El Dorado. I also like to watch movies like The Avengers and Thor. I don’t really like the DC comic movies though. I like my movies to be interesting and have funny parts. I want to watch movies so I can be entertained.

Oh yes they teach me about consequences and not to lie even if just to yourself. I can learn history and about mythology. They can teach me about life and that everything I do has a consequence. I have to care about others and make sure my family and friends are ok- that everybody is important.

TV because I have lots of choices and can pick things that I am interested in.


Do you play games? Do you prefer books, tv/movies or games?

What type are your favourite and why?


Do you think games teach you things? If so what?

At this point it is interesting to note that the older brother (age 20 and also on the Autism Spectrum) entered the discussion. Both boys discussed in detail how the games facilitated their own learning. They both agreed that gaming allows them to gain a sense of ownership and connection to the concepts learnt during game play. Both agreed that this feeling is not developed in the school based curriculum as they feel they have no control or ownership over the concepts learnt.

I really like games. They are the best.


I like sandbox games like Skyrim, World of Warcraft (I have to sneak on to my brother’s computer to play that), Assassins Creed, Minecraft and Halo. I do play board games with my family but I only like ones that make me think- like balderdash. The computer/xbox games make me think. Because they are sandbox games I can direct what my character does and where he goes. I’m in charge. There are no limits to what I can do- I don’t have to ‘level up’ to do things, although higher levels make some things easier for me but what I do in the games and where I go and the decisions I make are not limited by my level.

The sand box games teach really good things. I can learn history in games like Assassins Creed- like did you know all the dates of the dead famous people in the games are the real dates that they died. My sister told me that Skyrim is a lot like Lord of the Rings, which is a famous book and she was right because I watched to movie and some things are really simular. These games teach me how to solve problems; some even have puzzles that I need to solve with clues. I do the quests in the games and I learn that my decisions have really big consequences later on like in Fable if I make bad choices I turn evil- but I can start to do good things and become a better person in it so I’m not always bad. I can change myself with how I behave; that’s like in real life. A lot of the games teach me about strategy and team work: like in WOW I need to join with others to defeat the bigger evil. Also in these games as I level up the enemy also level up with me so things don’t get easier – I just have to find new and better ways to beat them.

You tube

Do you use YouTube? If so how?










Does you tube teach you things? If so what?

I watch You Tube a lot. I can look up things that interest me and that I want to learn how to do. Like sometimes I can’t defeat the enemy but someone on you tube has in the past and I watch their clip to learn things. I still have to do it but the clip helps me. I want to one day put my own clips on you tube and be like Phillip de Franco. He’s funny, but he talks about real serious stuff like things happening in the world and sometimes makes really important points.

You tube teaches me how to do things well.

Social media eg Facebook, Twitter

Do you use social media?


Does social media teach you things? If so what?

I have a Facebook account but I don’t use it much- I’ve got better things to do.

I don’t know- I don’t think so – I know a lot of people get bullied on it.

These responses suggest that effective and competent use of this new and emerging pedagogical tool found in these aspects of popular culture makes for a far more engaging and complex learning experience than previously believed. In essence this highlights that the student/individual is in fact being exposed to vigorous cognitive workouts as the concepts found in his preferred formats of popular culture is developing his critical thinking and problem solving skills (Johnson, 2005). The young man is no longer seeing learning as a construct fostered on to him but rather as an engaging and interactive experience. No longer remaining an empty receptacle awaiting the teacher to impart knowledge, this young man has used popular culture and screen time to add to his own knowledge, learning and understandings. It becomes obvious to me that traditional pedagogy alone is becoming increasingly ineffective with students who are adapting more and more to the engaging, evolving and fluid constructs of popular culture (Beach & O’Brian, 2008). Essentially the educator needs to ensure the lessons and outcomes reflect that education is occurring outside the classroom and is now happening on the TV, the movie screen, the PC, the tablet, the Smart Phone and the gaming console. By viewing the popular culture for pleasure the student is finding relevance, empowerment and knowledge in the activity.  Yet the reality is there are a vast number of not so positive aspects found in screen time and thus it is up to the adult to ensure that the youth are provided with aspects of popular culture that keep them intellectually challenged. The student embarks on the journey of engaging with popular culture in an effort to garner entertainment, and thus if the educator judiciously introduces these popular cultural aspects into their lessons/ units students will be empowered during their learning experience.

 The comments made by the young man being interviewed highlights that his interest in gaming is  preparing him for the future by ensuring he develops leadership, critical thinking, problem solving  and collaborative skill sets. Jenkins (2010) determines that this interest will actually develop the young man further and will become a platform for all future civic and political activism. Essentially popular culture and the young man’s exposure to it have ensured he, and other like him, already view the world differently to the typical educator. It was an interesting experience when the young man’s older brother joined the conversation- separated by 7 years with the elder being engaged in further education on a university level- both articulated the same message: that the games offer the opportunity for the player to become an active and autonomous learner. Both felt that they were in control of their learning when engaged on these platforms of popular culture and both strongly believed that school does not facilitate their true learning. This outlook supports Buckingham’s (2007) that traditional education treats the student as a passive component of the event and this ultimately stymies true educational outcomes.

While it is natural for the educator/adult to be concerned with the effects of popular culture on the youth of today we must take care not to limit our student’s educational growth due to adherence to outmoded practises. This interview highlights the fact that schools and their curriculum demands no longer control what the students are in fact learning. Rather the students control their own learning outside the classroom environment. Yet if not guided effectively are some of the lessons available stymying their true understanding and education? Effective use and control over the student engagement with the popular cultural constructs will ensure they remain not only engaged but also focused on their education.

So to understand this concept better, let’s return to Dewey and Kilpatrick- but now I will add a bit of Friere (1970) . The learning needs to be student centred, but it must also allow the student the freedom to engage in their own education. Friere’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1970) becomes increasingly valid when contemplating the effective use of popular culture in education: the teachers blind adherence to the traditional methods are oppressing the students learning due to the need to follow the social guidelines of our personal educational constraints. Using popular culture in ALL its constructs will allow the student to liberate their own education and thus develop critical thinking and awareness when engaging in the medium. In the words of Corey Feldman “You have to stay updated on trends, social things and pop culture, you need to stay up with the times and keep evolving (2013).”

Works Cited

Beach, R., & O’Brian, D. (2008). Ch 27 Teaching popular- culture Texts in The Classroom. In J. Coiro, & et al, Handbook to Research on new literacies (pp. 775-804). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Buckingham, D. (2007). Digital childhoods? In D. Buckingham, Beyond Technology (pp. 75-98). Cambridge UK: Polity Press.

DeFranco, P. (2013, October 21). Terrifying Hornet Killing Spree., You Tube.

Dewey, J. (1916). Democracy and Education. Retrieved from Project Guttenberg:

Feldman, C. (2013). Corey Feldman Quotes. Retrieved from Brainy Quotes:

Friere, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the Opressed. Retrieved from Marxist Education:

Jenkins, H. (2010, June 3). TED lecture on Particapatory Culture. (H. Jenkins, Performer)

Johnson, S. (2005). Introduction : The Sleeper Curve . In S. Johnson, Everything Bad is Good for you (pp. 1-14). New York: Riverhead Books.

Kilpatrick, W. H. (1951). Philosophy of Education. New York: MacMillian Press.

Marzano, R. J. (2010). The Art and Science of Teaching: Using Games to Enhance Student Achievement. Educational Leadership: Meeting Students where they areVol 67 No5, 71-72.

Podhoretz, J. (2013). John Podhoretz Quotes. Retrieved from Brainy Quotes:

Is Popular Culture, Modern Technology and Consumerism faciliating the Death of Culture?

Clip from Raushkanaush Channel – You Tube

 Alternate viewpoints- are concepts found in popular culture, modern technology and consumerism killing culture?

Popular culture is a resource that allows the individual to explore the influences that impact on their life, values and dreams. Essentially it allows the individual to construct their own identity in the ever changing modern world (Edwards, 2009). This quest for individual identity means that often the perceptions of the audience are fluid and migratory as they embark on their journey to access the experiences that they believe will define them (Jenkins, 2006), and thus corporations and big business base their marketing and product decisions on the concept of what does the consumer desire. Modernisation and urbanisation has reconstructed the way people live and while many aspects of these movements have created a better future for mankind there are elements that are negative: one being that of consumerism. Driven to buy beyond our needs, on impulse in an effort to sate a desire for the biggest, the best… the newest, man becomes manipulated by the large corporations wanting to make a profit (Valliani, 2013).  

This aspect is explored in the article The Middle-Class And The Death Of Culture. In the article Ghosh (2012) perceives the consumer as a selfish and materialistic being that contribute nothing to culture or mankind’s intellectual enrichment as they graze on McDonalds and watch TV. Core to the argument is the concept that these consumers do not create anything of value and simply consume, and ultimately destroy culture in their quest for mindless entertainment and short lived contentment. It is interesting to note that this concept is not limited to the just being the view of academics and purists for even comics such as George Carlin  highlight the concepts and concerns of the consumer driven society in their skits and acts.

  So the question arises: Are popular culture, consumerism and technology killing culture?

Ultimately popular culture is linked closely to consumerism. The advertising machine is stimulated through constructs evident in popular culture in their effort to market new, updated and ‘improved’ products. Personal happiness, well-being and sense of attainment are now linked with concepts of ownership of the newest model, as recently seen in the launch of the iPhone 5S. The products promoted are to be owned or consumed in order to confer concepts of success to be projected on the purchaser by their peers. This linking of consumerism, identity and popular culture are heavily influenced and manipulated by the global corporations. Using celebrities, images of desired lifestyles and music the consumer is consciously and sub consciously manipulated into purchasing products by the marketing being guided by concepts derived from features of popular culture (Meinhold, n.d). This manipulation of opinion alters the concepts, opinions and ideas of the consumer, making it necessary for the consumer to have a degree of control over how messages are grasped. With children now becoming the targeted market of the consumer machine (Buckingham, 2007)it is important that they be given the skills to navigate the shoals of the mass media, consumerism and popular culture. While it is true that the youth of today are not mindless victims manipulated by the corporate machine (Doecke & McClenaghan, 2010) it is still a fact that popular culture, technology and advertising filter out many opinion altering concepts and ideas (Bough, 2011). In his article Bough  discusses the use of algorithms in search engines, social media, publishing houses, recording studios, gaming companies and Hollywood studios mean that many aspects of popular culture are being produced and/ or presented to the consumer only if they fit the demands of mass market demographic (Bough, 2011). If we consider how much information is created every day throughout the modern world then this concept of content limitation highlights that the popular culture of today is a generated construct. Essentially we must face up to the possibility that today’s culture is not running its course and is instead being directed by the consumer market.   

Please Note:

George Carlin Clip – please be aware there is excessive foul language in this clip

Works Cited

Bough, B. B. (2011). The Death of Culture . Retrieved from Forbes:

Buckingham, D. (2007). Digital childhoods? In D. Buckingham, Beyond Technology (pp. 75-98). Cambridge UK: Polity Press.

Carlin, G. (2012) American Consumerism,  ManOfDeath You Tube Channel,

Doecke, B., & McClenaghan, D. (2010). Ch 14 Reconceptualising Experience. In S. Gannon, M. Howie, & W. Sawyer, Charged with Meaning: Reviewing English Third Edition. Putney:NSW: Phoniex Education.

Edwards, K. (2009). Good looks and sex symbols: the power of the gaze and the displacement of the erotic in Twilight. Screen Education (53, 26-32.

Ghosh, P. (2012, September 7). Middle Class and the Death of Culture. Retrieved from International Buisness Times:

Jenkins, H. (2006, June 19). Welcome to the Convergence Culture. Retrieved from The Offical Weblog of Henery Jenkins:

Meinhold, R. (n.d). Popular Culture and Consumerism. Retrieved from Scheinheilig:

Raushkanaush. (2011, November 4). Advertising and Consumerism ., You Tube.

Valliani, A. (2013). The Culture . Retrieved from